Birds don't read books. Where they nest depends on the local climate, local populations of partners and competitors, availability of food, available nesting sites such as snags, etc. Geographic variation is common. For example, the Hairy Woodpecker tends be in mature mixed-hardwood forests and avoid pine except in Florida where it frequents mature pinelands and swamp forests.
If information on breeding habitat was not available, I just used habitat. The majority of this information was culled from Birds of North American online. I'm always looking for input, so if you have more details or corrections, please contact me.
Species are listed below in alpha order by common name. See Nestbox Specifications for specifics on preferred nestbox size, entrance hole, and mounting height.
At least 46 species of North American birds may use nestboxes. Birds with a * by their name are most commoly reported in nestboxes in The Birdhouse Network (TBN) database. Birds with an x by their name are on TBN's Most Wanted List with less than 50 nest attempts in their database as of 2007.
Open or semi-open grassland habitat with an open canopy and little or no understory, with sparse ground cover/low grass. Orchards, mowed meadows, large
lawns, cemeteries, orchards, roadsides,
and areas with scattered trees and
short ground cover. Clear-cut forests, burned tracts of pine woods, swampy habitats near urban areas. Perching spots (fence, telephone lines, medium size trees) preferred for hunting and nest-guarding.
Along roadsides, on ranches and farms with pastures, prairie forest with groves of trees, short grasses and scattered shrubs, savannahs, recently burned areas, clear cuts, edges of alpine tundra, sagebrush flats and valleys.
Open canopy woodlands (coniferous and deciduous) and edge with scattered trees, moderately disturbed areas including moderately logged forests and burned areas with available foraging perches. Wooded riparian areas, grasslands, farmlands but does not prefer large open meadows like Eastern Bluebird, or deserts. Rural and suburban areas.
Pastures and clearings near dense scrub/sagebrush/chaparral/mesquite,
pine, cedar, oak groves, saguaro, near heavily wooded or open forested areas, and perhaps
a creek or a pond in arid/semi-arid areas. Woodland corridors along washes, streams, canyon bodies, or on the edge of dense woodland and forest with adjacent foraging territories in desert scrub habitats.
Primarily open habitats: grasslands, deserts, coastal marshes, and agricultural fields or fields in early states of succession to most forest types. Light woodland, semi-open areas with scattered trees. Also in towns and around human habitations, old buildings, etc.
BBS Map - not available
Deep, mature forests near streams and swamps. In the Pacific Northwest it readily inhabits mature second-growth forest.
Mixtures of thick scrubby vegetation and open woodland and farmyards, fence rows. Eastern populations often around farm outbuildings (e.g., shed, garage, barn) near brushy or wooded areas in cleared or fairly open country. Western in brushy areas usually away from humans.
Deciduous and mixed deciduous (e.g. birch or alder)/coniferous woodland, open woods and parks, willow thickets, and cottonwood groves. Also disturbed areas, such as old fields or suburban areas. Generally more common near edges of wooded areas, but can be found even in the middle of large wooded tracts.
Clearings and burned areas, Open, mature pine forest with open understory, esp. Loblolly and Longleaf-slash, where snags are present. Favors recently burned stands. Less frequently found in younger pine or pine-hardwood (e.g., oak/hickory) stands with snags and grassy openings, or mature pine stands with heavy undergrowth. May be in parks and neighborhoods that have large live pines in open areas. In Florida in cypress swamps and prairies with adjoining pine woodlands.
Same are as Northern Flicker (main source of nesting cavities.) Open poplar or aspen stands near water (freshwater, small permanent ponds and small lakes, little or no emergent, submerged vegetation along shore). Prairie habitat only when stands of trees are near the water.
Multi-layered forest with a healthy shrub, midstory, and overstory canopy - swamp forests, maritime/riparian hardwood forests, hardwood and pine. In great plain states found in tree-shrub-savannah communities, ranchland. Coastal plains, swamps. Inhabits parks, well-wooded suburban and urban areas. Will nest under canopy as well as in open areas, may prefer edge of open grassland.
Primarily wetlands, lakes, and rivers bordered by mature coniferous forests. Prefers large sand bottom, shallow (,10 feet) lakes or lake clusters with clear water and good visibility, few or no fish, and low or simple or irregular shorelines without a lot of vegetation, but adjacent stands of old hardwoods.
Fairly open, deciduous (aspen, cottonwood, willow, elm, oak, ash, etc.), especially riparian forest, less abundant in coniferous forests except when associated with deciduous understory. Orchards and wooded urban and suburban parks and residential areas. May nest in open areas in vacant lots with tall weeds fence rows. Will use less mature and moderately open forest.
Open country or lightly wooded suburban areas with park-like situations, forest edge and open woodlands approaching savannas. Riparian woodlands, swamps or recently flooded areas with numerous snags, beaver ponds, farm woodlots, and shelter belts; and settled areas from villages to suburbs. May avoid cavities that are too deep (over 13" from hole to floor) since they don't build a nest.
Prefers wooded, clear water streams. Forested wetlands. May be in grasslands and non-forested wetlands with riparian corridors. Emergent marshes, small lakes, ponds, beaver wetlands, forested creeks and rivers, and swamps. Usually shallow with exposed areas like rocks or logs for loafing. Prefers small fishless, headwater ponds, with neutral acidity.
Disturbed areas near humans, such as backyards, parks, urban centers, farms and forest edges. Not found in open grasslands or desert flats far from things they can nest and perch on, or in dense coniferous forests.
Found throughout the populated world. Common in agricultural, suburban, and urban areas. The only areas they tend to avoid are woodlands, forests, large grasslands, and deserts.
NON-NATIVE. Do not allow to nest in nestboxes.
Fragmented forest and orchards (edges, small woodlots), swamps, farmland, residential areas and parks near trees and shrubs. Usually avoids nest sites ≥100 feet from any significant woody vegetation. However, also avoids sites in heavily vegetated locations where visibility is low.
Open canopy with brushy understory, snags or downed woody materials. Open park-like ponderosa or piñon pine/fir forest, open riparian woodland dominated by cottonwood, or logged or burned pine, oak, woodland, nut and fruit orchards, farm and ranch land.
PROWs prefer areas with stagnant or slow moving water, especially those that only flood intermittently, such as swamps (especially bald cypress swamps), ponds, wet forested bottomlands, flooded river valleys, and streams with willows, backyard ponds. Prefers low elevation, flat terrain, shaded forest habitat with sparse understory. Avoids forests less than 100 hectares in area , and waterways with wooded borders less than 30 hectares wide.
Eastern is around human settlements in the east, including very urban environments. Avoid higher elevations, deserts and grasslands. May be in open woodland (e.g., aspen) along edges of beaver ponds, or burned over/logged forests edge in riparian areas (e.g., wooded ponds/beaver marshes.) Western in pine/hardwood forests and saguaro cactus desert.
Strong and almost exclusive preference for mature, undisturbed (unlogged) long-needled pine (e.g., ponderosa, Jeffrey pine) forests. In CA, also nests in big-cone Douglas Fir or Oak if mixed among pinese.
Open coniferous or mixed forests, e.g., ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and fir-redwood-cedar.
BBS Map - not available
Dry to wet sites consisting of relatively mature hardwoods where large-diameter trees are present, with large expanses of forest, but readily uses mixed pine-hardwood forests in the Deep South, and mesic pine flat woods. . Inhabits heavily timbered bottomlands, swampy woods, and riparian forests heavily wooded with oaks and elms.
Mature and diverse stands of coniferous forest, especially with spruce, fir, pine, hemlock, larch, and cedar, also in woodland where lots of conifers are mixed with deciduous trees such as aspen, oak and polar. In West prefer high canopies and large trees. Eastern populations appear to be more tolerant of mixed-forest habitats. Known for smearing nest entrance with pitch to deter predators.
Extensive mature open pine forest maintained naturally by frequent fires sometimes in stands that are younger or where hardwood encroachment is dense. Prefer open, park-like pine forests at least 80-120 years old. Usually nest and roost in cavities excavated in living, mature pines whose heartwood was destroyed by fungus.
Prefers open deciduous woodlands; open, upland meadows or short grass areas (farm, golf courses, parks, savannah grasslands) with scattered large deciduous trees or groves, field edges, burned timber stands with, lush herbaceous ground cover - not woods with closed canopies, forest edge and along roadsides. Attracted to timber with little or no leaf canopy, such as those sprayed with herbicides, or trees killed by flooding (e.g. beaver ponds). May prefer snags with little bark remaining.
Along permanent watercourses at lower elevations, tree-dominated landscapes of most types, natural and culturally modified, early successional to mature, urban and suburban yards, parks, and green belts. Prefers open subcanopy space with sparse shrub cover, like meadow edges and fruit orchards.
BBS Map - not available
Screech Owl, Western
(Megascops kennicottii) x
Seasonally wet, upland riparian habitats with deciduous trees. Widely spaced trees, interspersed with grassy open space.
Where ever there is food, nest sites and water - typically around cities and towns, and in agricultural areas. The only places they do not frequent are large expanses of woods, arid chaparral and deserts.
Deciduous forest, also may be in deciduous-coniferous, swamps, orchards, parks, suburban areas. Prefers tall vegetation, large numbers of tree species, dense canopy. They may like a spot near food sources like bird feeders. They do not like to cross open spaces, so they may also prefer boxes under heavy tree canopy. They may prefer boxes mounted on trees, which poses a risk of predation. They will nest near a house (reported 15-20 feet away). Prefer higher percent of forest cover (vs. fragmented forests <2 ha in size).
Mature deciduous woodland (large, decaying trees), but also mixed deciduous and coniferous forest, preferring forest edge near open areas (water, road, clearing, field) near nest. (Red-breasted nuthatch more common in boreal coniferous forest.) In California seems to prefer oak. Prefer natural holes in large, old trees. May refuse to nest in a box mounted on a pole, instead preferring tall trees with the box mounted 12-20 feet high. Report of nesting in a baffled box on a post under a tree canopy. Large loose chunks of bark attached to the nestbox may be attractive, along with an entrance hole in the upper back corner on the side of the box (with no overhang) and with the hole nearly hidden by a larger branch coming out right beside the entrance hole, or perhaps a chalet style roof with little overhang in the front that enables the bird to walk head down towards the hole. 1-4" wood shavings placed in box may promote excavation.
Interspersion of flooded shrubs, water-tolerant trees (e.g., by beaver ponds), and small areas of open water resulting in about 50–75% cover are favored. Stable water levels important to success. Scrub/shrub wetlands with overhead cover of downed timber and woody shrubs. Wetlands with dense stands of emergent plants Best if a mixture of shallow, freshwater wetland types are close together.
Birds of North American online (Cornell) - detailed species accounts, scientific references, descriptions of behavior, nesting timing, migration, population trends, conservation, etc. (paid subscription for full access)
"Never say never" is my best advice to bluebirders everywhere. Just when you think you can make sweeping statements, an exception seems to "pop up." I use what works best for me on my trails. Others will eventually find out what works best for them on theirs!
- Ann Wick, WI, Bluebird_L, 2006
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